Original link: https://kaylareneewheeler.com/blackislamsyllabus/

This project is curated by Dr. Kayla Renée Wheeler and was inspired by Prof. Najeeba Syeed, #BlackInMSA, and Muslim ARC.  The goal of this project is to provide teachers, professors, researchers, journalists, and people interested in learning more about Islam with resources on Black Muslims to promote a more inclusive approach to the study of Islam.  If you would like to contribute to this project, post your recommendations on Twitter using #BlackIslamSyllabus or email me at kaylar824@gmail.com.  If you would like to support efforts to transform the syllabus into a website that will include author video interviews, book reviews, and a more accessible layout or thank me for my labor, please donate: paypal.me/kaylareneewheeler

Islam in the Americas


Sultana Afroz, “From Moors to Marronage: The Islamic Heritage of the Maroons in Jamaica”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 19/2 (1999), pp. 161-179


Sultana Afroz, “Invisible Yet Invincible: The Muslim Ummah in Jamaica”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 23/1 (2003), pp. 211-222


Hishaam Aidi, “Jihadis in the Hood: Race, Urban Islam and the War on Terror” http://www.merip.org/mer/mer224/jihadis-hood


Zaheer Ali, “Return to Roots: African Americans Return to Islam through Many Paths”, Islamic Horizons (July/August 2005), pp. 16-35.


Herbert Berg, “Mythmaking in the African American Muslim Context: The Moorish Science Temple, the Nation of Islam, and the American Society of Muslims”, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 73/3 (2005), pp. 685-703.


Sylvia Chan-Malik, Being Muslim: A Cultural History of Women of Color in American Islam


James L. Conyers, Jr. and Abul Pitre (editors), Africana Islamic Studies (2016)

Ashon Crawley, Peace in Sapelo: On Black Islam and Black Christianity”, Hampton Institution, http://www.hamptoninstitution.org/peace-in-sapelo.html#.WGMhCBsrK03 

Edward E. Curtis IV, Muslims in America: A Short History (2009)


Robert Dannin, Black Pilgrimage to Islam (2005)

Asad el Malik, Bismillah & Bean Pies: How Black Americans Crafted an Islamic Expression through Nationalism (2016)

Expressions of Islam in Contemporary African American Communities, The Fourth Annual Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Islamic Studies Conference (April 7-8, 2012) http://www.islamicstudies.harvard.edu/expressions-of-islam-in-contemporary-african-american-communities/


Kambiz GhaneaBassiri, A History of Islam in America: From the New World to the New World Order (2010)


Michael Gomez, Black Crescent: The Experience and Legacy of African Muslims in the Americas (2005)


Aliyah Khan, Far from Mecca: Globalizing the Muslim Caribbean (2020)

Manning Marable and Hishaam Aidi (editors), Black Routes to Islam (2009)


Aminah McCloud, African American Islam (1994).


Al-Hajj Wali Akbar Muhammad, Muslims in Georgia 1771-1965: A Historical View (2012)

Kathleen Malone O’Connor, “The Islamic Jesus: Messiahhood and Human Divinity in African American Muslim Exegesis”, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 66/3 (Autumn 1998), pp. 493-532


Abdul Noor, The Supreme Understanding: The Teachings of Islam in North America (2002)

Samory Rashid, Black Muslims in the U.S.: History, Politics, and the Struggle of a Community (2013)

Richard Brent Turner, Islam in the African-American Experience (2003)



Enslaved Africans


Muhammed Abdullah al-Ahari, Bilali Muhammad: Muslim Jurisprudist in Antebellum Georgia (2010)


Sultana Afroz, “The Role of Islam in the Abolition of Slavery and in the Development of British Capitalism”, The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 29/1, pp. 1-29


Muhammad A. Al-Ahari (editor), Five Classic Muslim Slave Narratives (2011)


Allan D. Austin, African Muslims in Antebellum America: A Sourcebook (1984)


Allan D. Austin, African Muslims in Antebellum America: Transatlantic Stories and Spiritual Struggles (1997)

Manuel Barcia, “West African Islam in Colonial Cuba”, Slavery & Abolition, 35/2 (2014) pp. 292-305

Khaled A. Beydoun, “Antebellum Islam”, Howard Law Journal, 58/1 (2014)


Ray Crook, “Bilali-The Old Man of Sapelo Island: Between Africa and Georgia”, Wadabagei: A Journal of the Caribbean and Its Diaspora, 10/2 (Spring 2007), pp. 40-55


Robert O. Collins, “The African Slave Trade to Asia and the Indian Ocean Islands”, African and Asian Studies, 5/3-4 (2006), pp. 325-347

Sylviane A. Diouf, Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas, 15th Anniversary Edition (2013)


Chouki el Hamel, Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam (2012)


Allan G.B. Fisher and Humphrey J. Fisher, Slavery and Muslim Society in Africa (1971)


Humphrey J. Fisher, Slavery in the HIstory of Muslim Black Africa (2001)

Ronald Judy, Disforming The American Canon: African-Arabic Slave Narratives and the Vernacular (1993)

Paul E. Lovejoy, “The Urban Background of Enslaved Muslims in the Americas”, Slavery & Abolition: A Journal of Slave and Post-Slave Studies, 26/3 (2005), pp. 349-376.


Patrick Manning, Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades (1990)


Precious Rasheeda Muhammad, “An African Muslim Prince Goes to Boston in 1828” http://www.patheos.com/blogs/preciousmuhammad/2014/02/an-african-muslim-prince-goes-to-boston-in-1828/

Precious Rasheeda Muhammad, “‘Oh, Allah, Operate on Us!’: Islam and the Legacy of American Slavery in Michael Wolfe (ed.), Taking Back Islam: American Muslims Reclaim Their Faith (Rodale Press, 2002), pp. 129-135


João José Reis (translated by Arthur Brakel), Slave Rebellion in Brazil: The Muslim Uprising of 1835 in Bahia (1995)


Ronald Segal, Islam’s Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora (2001)


Richard Brent Turner, “African Muslim Slaves and Islam in Antebellum America”, in Juliane Hammer and Omid Safi (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to American Islam (2013), pp. 28-44


Terence Walz and Kenneth M. Cuno (editors), Race and Slavery in the Middle East: Histories of Trans-Saharan Africans in 19th-Century Egypt, Sudan, and the Ottoman Mediterranean (2011)


John Ralph Willis (ed.), Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa (1985)


The Moorish Science Temple of America


Ernest Allen Jr., “Identity and Destiny: The Formative Views of the Moorish Science Temple and the Nation of Islam” in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and John L. Esposito (eds.), Muslims on the Americanization Path? (1998), pp. 163-214. 


Patrick D. Bowen, “Abdul Hamid Suleiman and the Origins of the Moorish Science Temple”, Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Religion, 2/13 (2011), pp. 1-54


Emily Clark, “Noble Drew Ali’s ‘Clean and Pure Nation’: The Moorish Science Temple, Identity, and Healing”, Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions, 16/3 (2013), pp. 31-51


Edward E. Curtis IV, “Debating the Origins of the Moorish Science Temple: Toward a New Cultural History” in  Edward E. Curtis IV and Danielle Brune Sigler (ed.s), The New Black Gods: Arthur Huff Fauset and the Study of African American Religions (2009)


Spencer Dew, “Juanita Mayo Richardson Bey: Editor, Educator, and Poetic Visionary of First-Generation Moorish Science,” Journal of Africana Religions, 2/2 (2014), pp. 184-210


Jacob Dorman, The Princess and the Prophet: The Secret History of Magic, Race, and Moorish Muslims in America (2020)

Arthur Huff Fauset, Black Gods of the Metropolis: Negro Religious Cults of the Urban North (1970)

Susan Nance, “Mystery of the Moorish Science Temple: Southern Blacks and American Alternative Spirituality in 1920s Chicago”, Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation, 12/2 (Summer 2002), pp. 123-166


Susan Nance, “Respectability and Representation: The Moorish Science Temple, Morocco, and Black Public Culture in 1920s Chicago”, American Quarterly, 54/4 (2002), pp. 623-659


Scott J. Varda, “Drew Ali and the Moorish Science Temple of America: A Minor Rhetoric of Black Nationalism”, Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 16/4 (Winter 2013), pp. 685-717


Nation of Islam


Amy Alexander (editor), The Farrakhan Factor: African-American Writers on Leadership, Nationhood, and Minister Louis Farrakhan (1998)

Zaheer Ali, “The Message and the Messenger: The Impact of Minister Louis Farrakhan and the Million Man March”, Koinonia 12 (Spring 2000), pp. 33-42


Ernest Allen Jr., “Religious Heterodoxy and Nationalist Tradition: The Continuing Evolution of the Nation of Islam”, The Black Scholar: Journal of Black Studies and Research, 26/3-4 (1996), pp. 1-34


Ernest Allen Jr., “Satokata Takahashi and the Flowering of Black Messianic Nationalism”, The Black Scholar, 24 (Winter 1994), pp. 23-46 http://www.umass.edu/afroam/downloads/allen.tak.pdf


Herbert Berg, Elijah Muhammad and Islam (2009)


Zoe Colley, “‘All America is a Prison’: The Nation of Islam and the Politicization of African American Prisoners, 1955-1965”, Journal of American Studies, 48/2 (May 2014), pp. 393-415


Malachi D. Crawford, Black Muslims and the Law: Civil Liberties from Elijah Muhammad to Muhammad Ali (2015)

Edward E. Curtis IV, Black Muslim Religion in the Nation of Islam, 1960-1975 (2006)


E.U. Essien-Udom, Black Nationalism and the Search for Identity (1995)


Karl Evanzz, The Messenger: The Rise and Fall of Elijah Muhammad (2001)


Fatima Fanusie, Fard Muhammad in Historical Context (2014), https://vimeo.com/90333385


Garrett Felber, Those Who Know Don’t Say: The Nation of Islam, the Black Freedom Movement, and the Carceral State (2020)

Mattias Gardell, In the Name of Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam (1996)


Mattias Gardell, “The Sun of Islam Will Rise in the West: Minister Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam in the Latter Days” in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and Jane Idleman Smith (eds.), Muslim Communities in North America (1994), pp. 15-50

Dawn-Marie Gibson, A History of the Nation of Islam: Race, Islam, and the Quest for Freedom (2012)

Dawn-Marie Gibson,  The Nation of Islam, Louis Farrakhan, and the Men who Follow Him (2016)

Dawn-Marie Gibson, “Nation Women’s Engagement and Resistance in the Muhammad Speaks Newspaper”, Journal of American Studies, 49/1 (Feb. 2015), pp. 1-18


Dawn-Marie Gibson and Herbert Berg, New Perspectives on the Nation of Islam (2017)

Dawn-Marie Gibson and Jamillah Karim, Women of the Nation: Between Black Protest and Sunni Islam (2014)


Bayyinah S. Jeffries, A Nation Can Rise No Higher Than Its Women: African American Muslim Women in the Movement for Black Self Determination, 1950-1975 (2014).


Jamillah Karim, “Profile: The Leadership and Legacy of Sister Clara Muhammad”, Sapelo Square (Feb 1 2016) http://sapelosquare.com/2016/02/01/profile-sister-clara-muhammad/


Jamillah Karim, “Through Sunni Women’s Eyes: Black Feminism and the Nation of Islam,” Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society (2006), 8/4, pp. 19-30


Latino & Muslim: A Conversation with Minister Abel Muhammad http://www.boriquachicks.com/2015/08/31/latino-muslim-a-conversation-with-minister-abel-muhammad/

Marta F. Lee, The Nation of Islam, An American Millenarian Movement (1988)


  1. Eric Lincoln, Black Muslims in America, 3rd ed. (1994)


Louis Lomax, When the Word is Given (1963)  

Clifton E. Marsh, From Black Muslims to Muslims: The Transition from Separatism to Islam, 1930-1980 (1984)

Clifton E. Marsh, The Lost-Found Nation of Islam in America (2000)

Elijah Muhammad, The God-Science of Black Power (2008)


Elijah Muhammad, How to Eat to Live, Book 1 (1967)

Elijah Muhammad, How to Eat to Live, Book 2 (1972)

Elijah Muhammad, Message to the Blackman in America (1973)

Elijah Muhammad, The Supreme Wisdom: Solution to the so-called NEGROES Problem, Vol. 1 (2008)

Elijah Muhammad, Yakub (Jacob): The Father of Mankind (2002)

Master Fard Muhammad, The Supreme Wisdom Lessons by Master Fard Muhammad to his Servant:  The Most Honorable Elijah Muhammad for The Lost-Found Nation of Islam in America, ed. Suzanne Brawtley (2014)

Warith D. Muhammad, As the Light Shineth from the East (1980)


Bradley Price Roderick, “A Brief Look at the Roots and Development of the Nation of Islam” http://www.renaissance.com.pk/janrefl99.html


Michael Saahir, The Honorable Elijah Muhammad: The Man Behind the Men (2011)

Ula Taylor, “Elijah Muhammad’s Nation of Islam: Separatism, Regendering, and a Secular Approach to Black Power after Malcolm X (1965-1975)”, in Jeanne Theoharis and Komozi Woodard (eds.), Freedom North: Black Freedom Struggles Outside the South, 1940-1980 (2003), pp. 177-198

Ula Taylor, The Promise of Patriarchy: Women and the Nation of Islam (2017)


Nuri Tinaz, “Black Islam in Diaspora: The Case of Nation of Islam (NOI) in Britain”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 26/2 (2006), pp. 151-170


Dennis Walker, Islam and the Search for African American Nationhood: Elijah Muhammed, Louis Farrakhan, and the Nation of Islam (2005)


Cynthia S’thembile West “Revisiting Female Activism in the 1960s: The Newark Branch of Nation of Islam”, The Black Scholar: Journal of Black Studies and Research, 26/3-4 (1996), pp. 41-48

Vilbert L. White Jr., Inside the Nation of Islam: A Historical and Personal Testimony by a Black Muslim (2001)



Malcolm X (also see Biography section)


Hisham Aidi, “Malcolm X and the Sudanese,” Al Jazeera (March 19, 2020) https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/malcolm-sudanese-200318141328025.html

Saladin Ambar, Malcolm X at Oxford Union: Racial Politics in a Global Era (2014)


Donna A. Auston, “UPenn: The Legacy of Malcolm X” http://donnaauston.com/upenn-the-legacy-of-malcolm-x/


Magnus O. Bassey, Malcolm X and African American Self-Consciousness (2005)


Richard D. Benson II, Fighting for Our Place in the Sun: Malcolm X and the Radicalization of the Black Student Movement, 1960-1973 (2014)

George Breitman (ed.), Malcolm X: Selected Speeches and Statements (1994)

Jan R. Carew, Ghosts in Our Blood: With Malcolm X in Africa, England, and the Caribbean (1994)


Claude Clegg, “Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad”, in Robert. E. Terrill, Cambridge Companion to Malcolm X (2010), pp. 10-25


Louis A. Decaro Jr., On the Side of My People: A Religious Life of Malcolm X (1997)

Rita Kiki Edozie and Curtis Stokes (editors), Malcolm X’s Michigan Worldview: An Exemplar for Contemporary Black Studies (2015)


Juan M. Floyd-Thomas, “Gaining One’s Definition: The (De)Chrirstianization of Malcolm X’s Life and Legacy”, Journal of Africana Religions, 3/1 (2015_, pp. 44-61


Y.N. Kly, The Black Book: The True Political Philosophy of Malcolm x (El Hajj Malik El Shabazz) (2015)


Louis Lomax, To Kill a Black Man (1968)


Theresa Perry (editor), Teaching Malcolm X (1995)


Randy Roberts and Johnny Smith, Blood Brothers: The Fatal Friendship Between Muhammad Ali and Malcolm X (2016)


William W. Sales, From Civil Rights to Black Liberation: Malcolm X and the Organization of Afro-American Unity (1999)


Robert. E. Terrill, Cambridge Companion to Malcolm X (2010)


Robert E. Terrill, Malcolm X: Inventing Racial Judgement (2007)


Eboni Marshall Turman, “‘The Greatest Tool of the Devil’ Mamie, Malcolm X, and the PolitiX of the Black Madonna in Black Churches and the Nation of Islam in the United States”, Journal of Africana Religions, 3/1 (2015), pp. 130-150



Five-Percent Nation/Nation of Gods and Earths (also check “Music” section)


Wakeel Allah, In the Name of Allah: A History of Clarence 13X and the Five Percenters, Vol. 1 (2009)

Wakeel Allah, In the Name of Allah: A History of Clarence 13X and the Five Percenters, Vol. 2 (2009)

Ahmon J. Keiler-Bradshaw, Voices of the Earth: A Phenomenological Study of Women in the Nation of Gods and Earths (2010), Master’s thesis

Michael Muhammad Knight, “The Five Percenters: Between Afrocentrism and Islam” https://vimeo.com/41310986

Michael Muhammad Knight, The Five Percenters: Islam, Hip-hop and the Gods of New York (2008)

Felicia Miyakawa, “I Self Lord Am Master”, https://vimeo.com/41310989


Yusuf Nuruddin, “Ancient Black Astronauts and Extraterrestrial Jihads: Islamic Science Fiction as Urban Mythology”, Socialism and Democracy, 20/3 (2006), pp. 127-165

Yusuf Nuruddin, “The Five Percenters: A Teenage nation of Gods on Earth” in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and Jane Idleman Smith (eds.), Muslim Communities in North America (1994), pp. 109-132


Ted Swedenburg, “Islam in the Mix: Lessons of the Five Percent” (1997) http://comp.uark.edu/~tsweden/5per.html

Dar ul-Islam Movement


Sh. Mahmoud Andrade Ibrahim al Amreeki, The Dar ul Islam Movement; An American Odyssey Revisited (2010)


Kamal Hassan Ali, Dar-ul-Islam: Principle, Praxis, Movement (2010)


R.M. Mukhtar Curtis, “Urban Muslims: The Formation of Dar ul-Islam Movement”, in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and Jane Idleman Smith (eds.), Muslim Communities in North America (1994), pp. 51-74




Zain Abdullah, “Sufis on Parade: The Performance of Black, African, and Muslim Identities”, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 77/2 (2009), pp. 1999-237

Anne K. Bang, Islamic Sufi Networks in the Western Indian Ocean (c. 1880-1940): Ripples of Reform (2014)

Anne Bang, Sufis and Scholars of the Sea: Family Networks in East Africa, 1860-1925 (2003)

Youssef Carter, “History and Memory in the Muslim Community of Moncks Corner,” Maydan (July 11, 2017) https://themaydan.com/2017/07/history-memory-muslim-community-moncks-corner/

Amy Catlin-Jairazbhoy, “Sacred Pleasure, Pain and Transformation in African Indian Sidi Sufi Ritual and Performance”, Performing Islam, 1/1 (2012), pp. 73-101

Laura L. Cochrane, Everyday Faith in Sufi Senegal (2017)

Laura L. Cochrane, Weaving through Islam in Senegal (2013)

Mamadou Diouf, Tolerance, Democracy, and Sufis in Senegal (2013)

John Glover, Sufism and Jihad in Modern Senegal: The Murid Order (2007)

Joseph Hill, Wrapping Authority: Women Islamic Leaders in a Sufi Movement in Dakar, Senegal (2018)

Zachary Valentine Wright, Living Knowledge in West African Islam: The Sufi Community of Ibrahim Niasse (2015)


Early Muslims


Habeeb Akande, Illuminating the Darkness: Blacks and North Africans in Islam (2012)

Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr Al-Jahiz and Vincent J. Cornell (translator), Book of the Glory of the Black Race (1981)

Nehemia Levtzion, Ancient Ghana and Mali, 2nd ed. (1980)

Nehemia Levtzion and J.F.P. Hopkins (eds.), Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History (2011)

Ahmad Mubarak and Dawud Walid, Centering Black Narrative: Black Muslim Nobles Among the Early Pious Muslims (2017)

Charles Pellat, The Life and Works of al-Jahiz: Translations of Selected Texts (1969)

Blaine D. Pope, The Book of Heraclius (2016)

David Robinson, Muslim Societies in African History: New Approaches to African History (2004)

Yusuf J. Yasin, al-Sawad al-A’Dham: Black Muslims in the Early Days of Islam (2016)

Dawud Walid, “7 Luminous Black Companions of the Prophet”, Muslim Matters (Feb. 20, 2015)


Dawud Walid, “Why Centering Muslims Who were ‘Black’ in Early Islamic History Matters”, Al-Madina Institute (Feb. 10, 2016) http://almadinainstitute.org/blog/why-centering-muslims-who-were-black-in-early-islamic-history-matters/ 


Diasporic Linkages

Zain Abdullah, Black Mecca: The African Muslims of Harlem (2010)


Hishaam Aidi, “‘Let Us Be Moors”: Islam, Race and ‘Connected Histories’”, Middle East Research and Information Project, 229  http://www.merip.org/mer/mer229/let-us-be-moors


Habeeb Akande, Illuminating the Blackness: Blacks and African Muslims in Brazil (2016)


Omar H. Ali, “Islam and the African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean World”, http://www.blackpast.org/perspectives/islam-and-african-diaspora-indian-ocean-world


Cheikh Anta Babou, “Brotherhood Solidarity, Education and Migration: The Role of the Dahiras Among the Murid Muslim Community of New York”, African Affairs, 101/403, pp. 151-170


Beeta Baghoolizadeh, “The Afro-Iranian Community: Beyond Haji Firuz Blackface, the Slave Trade, & Bandari Music”,  http://ajammc.com/2012/06/20/the-afro-iranian-community-beyond-haji-firuz-blackface-slavery-bandari-music/


William Banks, The Black Muslims: African American Achievers (1996)


Moustafa Bayoumi, “East of the Sun (West of the Moon): Islam, the Ahmadis, and African America”, Journal of Asian American Studies, 4/3 (2001), pp. 251-263


Susan Beckerleg, “African Bedouin in Palestine”, Asian and African Studies 6 (2007)


Rima Berns-McGowan, Muslims in the Diaspora: The Somali Communities of London and Toronto (1999)


Patrick D. Bowen, “Satti Majid; A Sudanese Founder of American Islam”, Journal of Africana Religions, 1/2 (2013), pp. 194-209

Patrick D. Bowen, “The Search for ‘Islam’: African-American Islamic Groups in NYC, 1904-1954”, The Muslim World, 102/2 (April 2012), pp. 264-283


Interview with Joseph Braude, “Africans in the Arabian (Persian) Gulf” http://www.afropop.org/9294/feature-africans-in-the-arabian-persian-gulf/


Beth Buggenhagen, Muslims Families in Global Senegal: Money Takes Care of Shame (2012)

Donald Martin Carter, States of Grace: Senegalese in Italy and the New European Immigration (University of MInnesota Press, 1997)


Amy Catlin-Jairazbhoy and Edward A. Alpers (editors), Sidis and Scholars: Essays on African Indians (2000)


Edward E. Curtis IV, The Call of Bilal: Islam in the African Diaspora (2014)


Edward E. Curtis IV, “The Ghawarna of Jordan: Race and Religion in the Jordan Valley”, Journal of Islamic Law and Culture, 13/2-3 (2011), pp. 193-209


JoAnn D’Alisera, An Imagined Geography: Sierra Leonean Muslims in America (2004)


Sohail Daulatzai, Black Star, Crescent Moon: The Muslim International and Black Freedom beyond America (2012)


Sohail Daulatzai, “To the East, Blackwards: Bandung Hopes, Diasporic Dreams, and Black/Muslim Encounters in Sam Greenlee’s Baghdad Blues”, Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, 8/4 (Fall 2006)


Mamadou Diouf and Rendall Steven, “The Senegalese Murid Trade Diaspora and the Making of a Vernacular Cosmopolitanism”, Public Culture, 12/3 (2000), pp. 679-702


Sylviane A. Diouf, “African Muslims in the Caribbean”, Wadabagei: A Journal of the Caribbean and Its Diaspora, 11/1(Winter 2008), pp. 83-95


Cathlene Dollar, “An ‘African’ Tarika in Anatolia” Notes on the Tijaniyya in Early Republican Turkey”, Annual Review of Islam in Africa, 11 (2012), pp. 30-34


Michael A. Gomez, “Africans, Culture, and Islam in the Lowcountry” in Philip Morgan (ed.), African American Life in the Georgia Lowcountry (2011) pp. 103-130


Budour Youssef Hassan, “African-Palestinian Community’s Deep Roots in Liberation Struggle”, The Electronic Intifada (2015) https://electronicintifada.net/content/african-palestinian-communitys-deep-roots-liberation-struggle/14682


John C. Hawley (editor), India in Africa, Africa in India: Indian Ocean Cosmopolitans (2008)


John O. Hunwick and Eve Troutt Powell, The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of Islam (2001)


Faaeza Jasdanwalla, “African Settles on the West Coast of India: The Sidi Elite of Janjira”, African and Asian Studies, 10/1 (2011), pp. 41-58


Mayke Kaag, “Transnational Elite Formation: The Senegalese Murid Community in Italy”, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 39/9 (2013), pp. 1425-1439


Brian Kamanzi and Idil Isse, “[Podcast] In Konversation: Reflecting on S. Africa, Unravelling Identity, a Somali in the Diaspora”, https://briankamanzi.wordpress.com/2015/09/24/podcast-inkonversation-in-konversation-reflecting-on-s-africa-unravelling-identity-a-somali-in-the-diaspora-idil-isse/


Ousmane Oumar Kane, The Homeland is the Arena: Religion, Transnationalism, and Integration of Senegalese Immigrants in America (Oxford University Press, 2011)

Christine Kolars, “Masjid ul-Mutkabir: The Portrait of an African American Orthodox Muslim Community”, in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and Jane Idleman Smith (eds.), Muslim Communities in North America (1994),


Victoria J. Lee, “The Mosque and Black Islam: Towards an Ethnographic Study of Islam in the Inner City”, Ethnography, 11/1 (March 2010), pp. 145-163


“Meet the Flourishing Muslim Community in Buenaventura, Colombia”, Global Voices (Nov. 3 2015) https://globalvoices.org/2015/11/03/meet-the-flourishing-muslim-community-in-buenaventura-colombia/


Michael Nash, Islam Among Urban Blacks. Muslims in Newark, New Jersey: A Social History (2008)


Lisa Gail Omanson, African-American and Arab American Muslim Communities in the Detroit Ummah (2013)


Samory Rashid, “The Islamic Origins of Spanish Florida’s Ft. Musa”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 21/2 (2001), pp. 209-226


Richard Reddie, Black Muslims in Britain (2009)


Bruce Riccio, “Transnational Mouridism and the Afro-Muslim Critique of Italy”, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30/5 (2004), pp. 929-944


Carolyn Rouse and Janet Hoskins, “Purity, Soul Food, and Sunni Islam: Explorations at the Intersection of Consumption and Resistance”, Cultural Anthropology, 19/2 (2004), pp. 226-249


Rita Sobczyk and Rosa Soriano, “Beyond ‘Mouridcentrism’: Lived Islam in the Context of Senegalese Migrations”, African Diaspora, 8/2 (2015), pp. 174-199


Marja Tiilikainen “Somali Women and Daily Islam in the Diaspora”, Social Compass, 50/1 (2003), pp. 59-69


Islam on the African Continent


Zain Abdullah, “Negotiating Identities: A History of Islamization in Black West AFrica”, Journal of Islamic Law and Culture, 10/1 (2008), pp. 5-18


Uthman Sayyid Ahmad Al-Bili, Some Aspects of Islam in Africa (Ithaca Press, 2007)


Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na’im, African Constitutionalism and the Role of Islam (2006)


Cheikh Anta Babou, Fighting the Greater Jihad: Amadu Bamba and the Founding of the Muridiyya of Senegal, 1852-1913 (2007)


Irit Back, “From the Colony to the Post-Colony: Sufis and Wahhabists in Senegal and Nigeria”, Canadian Journal of African Studies, 42/2-3 (Jan 2008), pp. 423-445

Pade Badru and Brigid M. Sackey (editors), Islam in Africa South of the Sahara: Essays in Gender Relations and Political Reform (Scarecrow Press, 2013)


Diana Bell, “Understanding a ‘Broken World’: Islam, Ritual, and Climate Change in Mali, West Africa”, Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature, and Culture, 8/3 (2014)


Conerly Casey, “‘Marginal Muslims’: Politics and the Perceptual Bounds of Islamic Authenticity in Northern Nigeria”, Africa Today, 54/3 (Spring 2008), pp. 67-92


André Chappatte, “Night Life in Southern Urban Mali: Being a Muslim Maquisard in Bougouni”, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 20/3 (2014), pp. 526-544

Peter B. Clarke, West Africa and Islam: A study of Religious Development from the 8th to 20th Century (1982)


Patrick Desplat and Terje Ostebo (editors), Muslim Ethiopia: The Christian Legacy, Identity Politics, and Islamic Reformism (2013)


Souleymane Bachir Diagne, “Shaykh al-Hajj Abbass Sall: In Praise of the Tijaniya Order” in John Renard (ed.), Tales of God’s Friends. Islamic Hagiography in Translation (2009)


Afyare Abdi Elmi, Understanding the Somalia Conflagration: Identity, Political Islam and Peacebuilding (2010)


Sarah Eltantawi, Shari’ah on Trial Northern Nigeria’s Islamic Revolution (2017)

Jonathan Glassman, War of Words, War of Stone: Racial Thought and Violence in Colonial Zanzibar (2011)


Michael A. Gomez, Pragmatism in the Age of Jihad: The Precolonial State of Bundu (1992)


Rosalind I.J. Hackett and Benjamin F. Soares, New Media and Religious Transformations in Africa (2014)

Sean Hanretta, Islam and Social Change in French West Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2010)


Abdulai Iddrisu, Contesting Islam in Africa: Homegrown Wahhabism and Muslim Identity in Northern Ghana, 1920-2010 (2013)


Marinus C. Iwuchukwu, Muslim-Christian Dialogue in Post-Colonial Northern Nigeria: The Challenges of Inclusive Cultural and Religious Pluralism (2013)


Alusine Jalloh and David E. Skinner (editors), Islam and Trade in Sierra Leone (1997)          


Marloes Janson, Islam, Youth, and Modernity in the Gambia: The Tablighi Jama’at (2013)


Shamil Jeppie and Souleymane Bachir Diagne (editors), The Meanings of Timbuktu (2008) http://www.codesria.org/spip.php?article643


Michelle C. Johnson, “‘The Proof is on My Palm’: Debating Ethnicity, Islam and Ritual in a New African Diaspora”, Journal of Religion in Africa, 36/1 (2006), pp. 50-77


Preben Kaarsholm, “Islam, Secularist Government, and State-Civil Society Interaction in Mozambique and South Africa since 1994”, Journal of Eastern African Studies, 9/3 (2015), pp. 468-487


Ousman Kobo, “The Development of Wahhabi Reforms in Ghana and Burkina Faso, 1960-1990: Elective Affinities between Western-Educated Muslims and Islamic Scholars”, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 51/3 (2009), pp. 502-532


Ousman Murzik Kobo, “Shifting Trajectories of Salafi/Ahl-Sunna Reformism in Ghana”, Islamic Africa, 6/1-2 (2015), pp. 60-81


Graziano Kratli and Ghislaine Lydon (editors), The Trans-Saharan Book Trade: Manuscript, Arabic Literacy and Intellectual History in Muslim Africa (2011)


Robert Launay, Beyond the Stream: Islam and Society in a West African Town (2004)


Mara A. Leichtman, Shi’i Cosmopolitanisms in Africa: Lebanese Migration and Religious Conversion in Senegal (2015)

Nehemia Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels (editors), History of Islam in Africa (2000)


Roman Loimeier, Islamic Reform and Political Change in Northern Nigeria (Northwestern University Press, 2011)

Roman Loimeier, Muslim Societies in Africa: A Historical Anthropology (Indiana University Press, 2013)

Paul Lovejoy, Ecology and Ethnography of Muslim Trade in West Africa (Africa World Press, 2005)

Wendell Hassan Marsh, “Dehistoricizing Islam in Africa”, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 35/3 (2015), pp. 656-666


B.G. Martin, Muslim Brotherhoods in 19th-century Africa (2003)


Janet McIntosh, The Edge of Islam: Power, Personhood, and Ethnoreligious Boundaries of the Kenya Coast (2009)


  1. Mirmotahari, Islam in the Eastern African Novel (2011)

Michael Mumisa, “Islam and Proselytism in South Africa and Malawi,” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 22/2 (2002), pp. 275-298

Arye Oded, Islam and Politics in Kenya (2000)

Charlotte A. Quinn and Frederick Quinn, Pride, Faith, and Fear: Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa (2003)


Eve Troutt Powell, A Different Shade of Colonialism: Egypt, Great Britain, and the Mastery of the Sudan (2003)


Elisha P. Renne, “The Hijab as a Moral Space in Northern Nigeria” in  Karen Tranberg Hansen and D. Soyini Madison (eds.), African Dress: Fashion, Agency, Performance (2013), pp. 92-110

Noah Salomon, For Love of the Prophet: An Ethnography of Sudan’s Islamic State (2016)

Lamin O. Sanneh, The Crown and the Turban: Muslims and West African Pluralism (1997)


Gunther Schlee with Abdullahi A. Shongolo, Islam and Ethnicity in Northern Kenya and Southern Ethiopia (2012)


Judith Scheele, “A Pilgrimage to Arawan: Religious Legitimacy, Status, and Ownership in Timbuktu”, American Ethnologist, 40/1 (2013), pp. 165-181


Dorothea E. Schulz, Muslims and New Media in West Africa: Pathways to God (2011)


Ahmad Alawad Sikainga, Slaves into Workers:  Emancipation and labor in Colonial Sudan (1996)

Benjamin Soares, Islam and the Prayer Economy: History and Authority in a Malian Town (2005)


Abdoulaye Sounaye, “Mobile Sunna: Islam, Small Media and Community in Niger”, Social Compass, 61/1 (March 2014), pp. 21-29


Emilio Spadola, The Calls of Islam: Sufis, Islamists, and Mass Mediation in Urban Morocco (2014)


John Thornton, Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World: 1400-1680 (1993)


Alex Thurston, “Muslim Politics and Shari’a in Kano State, Northern Nigeria”, African Affairs, 114/454 (2015), pp. 28-51


Richard Brent Turner, “Edward Wilmot Blyden and PanAfricanism: The Ideological Roots of Islam and Black Nationalism in the United States”, The Muslim World, 87/2 (1997), pp. 169-182


Goolam Vahed, “Contesting ‘Orthodoxy’: The Tablighi-Sunni Conflict among South African Muslims in the 1970s and 1980s”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 23/2 (2003), pp. 313-334.


Holger Weiss, Social Welfare in Muslim Societies in Africa (2002)


Katherine Wiley, “Fashioning People, Crafting Networks: Multiple Meanings in the Mauritanian Veil (Malahfa)” in Karen Tranberg Hansen and D. Soyini Madison (eds.), African Dress: Fashion, Agency, Performance (2013), pp. 77-91




Jean Boyd, “Distance Learning from Purdah in Nineteenth-century Northern Nigeria: The Work of Asma’u Fodiyo”, Journal of African Cultural Studies, 14/1 (2001), pp. 7-22


Louis Brenner, Controlling Knowledge: Religion, Power, and Schooling in a West African Muslim Society (2001)


Bruce A. Collet, “Islam, National Identity and Public Secondary Education: Perspectives form the Somali Diaspora in Toronto, Canada”, Race Ethnicity and Education, 10/2 (2007), pp. 131-153


Shirin Edwin, “Shaping Futures and Feminisms: Qur’anic Schools in West African Francophone Fiction”, Gender and Education, 23/7 (2011), pp. 873-888


Hannah Hoechner, “Porridge, Piety and Patience: Young Qur’anic Students’ Experiences of Poverty in Kano, Nigeria”, Africa, 85/02 (2015), pp. 269-288

Mbaye Lo and Muhammed Haron (eds.), Muslim Institutions of Higher Education in Postcolonial Africa (2015)

Beverly B. Mack and Jean Boyd, Educating Muslim Women: The West African Legacy of Nana Asma’u, 1793-1864 (2013)

Beverly B. Mack and Jean Boyd, One Woman’s Jihad: Nana Asma’u, Scholar and Scribe (2000)

Adeline Masquelier, “Qur’an Schooling and the Production of Mindful Bodies in West Africa”, Journal of Africana Religions, 3/2 (2015), pp. 184-192

Geert Mommersteeg, In the City of Marabouts: Islamic Culture in West Africa (Waveland Press, 2011)

Akbar Muhammad, “Islam and National Integration through Education in Nigeria,” in John L. Esposito (ed.), Islam and Development: Religion and Sociopolitical Change (1980), pp. 181-205.

Zakiyyah Muhammad, “Clara Muhammad Schools” in Faustine Childress Jones-Wilson (ed.), Encyclopedia of African American Education (1996) pp. 307-308.


Zakiyyah Muhammad, “The Dilemma of Islamic Education in America, Possible Solutions.” Muslim Education Quarterly, 7/4 (1990), pp. 27-35.


Zakiyyah Muhammad, “Islamic Education in America: An Historical Overview with Future Projections”, Religion and Education, 25/1&2 (Winter 1998), pp. 87-96.

Zakiyyah Muhammad, “Faith and Courage to Educate Our Own: Reflections on Islamic Schools in the African American Community” in Joyce E. King (ed.), Black Education: A Transformative Research and Action Agenda for the New Century (2005), pp. 261-279.

Zakiyyah Muhammad, “Islamic Schools in the United States: Perspectives of Identity, Relevance and Governance” in Philippa Strum and Danielle Tarantolo (eds.), Muslims in the United States – Demography, Beliefs Institutions (Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2003), p. 95-112.


David Owusu-Ansah; Abdulai Iddrisu; and Mark Sey; Islamic Learning, The State and the Challenges of Education in Ghana (2013)

Hakim M. Rashid and Zakiyyah Muhammad, “The Sister Clara Muhammad Schools: Pioneers in the Development of Islamic Education in America”, The Journal of Negro Education, 61/2 (Spring 1992), pp. 178-185

David E. Skinner, “Conversion to Islam and the Promotion of ‘Modern’ Islamic Schools in Ghana”, Journal of Religion in Africa, 43/ (2013), pp. 426-450


Rudolph T. Ware III, The Walking Qur’an: Islamic Education, Embodied Knowledge, and History in West Africa (2014) 


Black Muslim Thought


Ibrahim Abdul-Matin, Green Deen: What Islam Teaches about Protecting the Planet (2010)

Chanfi Ahmed, West African ʿUlamāʾ and Salafism in Mecca and Medina: Jawāb al-Ifrῑqῑ – The Response of the African (2015)

Jamil Al-Amin, Revolution by the Book: The Rap is Live (1993)

Noble Drew Ali, The Holy Koran of the Moorish Science Temple of America (1927)

Margari Aziza, “The Relevance of Black American Muslim Thought” (2013) http://margariaziza.com/2013/03/04/the-relevance-of-bam-thought/


Herbert Berg, “Early African American Muslim Movements and the Qur’an”, The Journal of Qur’anic Studies, 8/1 (2006), pp. 22-37


Edward E. Curtis IV, Islam in Black America: Identity, Liberation, and Difference in African-American Islamic Thought (2002)


Louis Farrakhan, A Torchlight for America (1993)

Sherman Jackson, Islam and the BlackAmerican:  Looking Toward the Third Resurrection (2011).


Sherman Jackson, Islam and the Problem of Black Suffering (2014)

Ousmane Oumar Kane, Beyond Timbuktu: An Intellectual History of Muslim West Africa (Harvard University Press, 2016)


Aminah Beverly McCloud, “African-American Muslim Intellectual Thought”, he Story of Islamophobia”, Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society, 9/2 (2007), pp. 171-181

Imam W. Deen Mohammed, And Follow the Best Thereof (2013)

Imam W. Deen Mohammed, Diversity in Al-Islam (2015)

Imam W. Deen Mohammed, Healthy Consciousness in Society (2016)

Imam W. Deen Mohammed, Wake Up to Human Life (2012)

Hakeem Muhammad, “Why Black Muslims Need Liberation Theology”, Patheos (Oct 19, 2016) http://www.patheos.com/blogs/truthtopower/2016/10/why-black-muslims-need-liberation-theology/ 

Vibert Muhammad, Michelle Muhammad, and Imam Hatim Hamidullah, The Sayings of Imam Warith Deen Mohammed, Vol. 1 (2015)

Michael Mumisa, “Black History and the Intellectual Golden Triangle,” Huffington Post, (last modified Oct 12, 2016) http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/michael-mumisa/black-history-and-the-int_b_8281948.html

Michael Mumisa, “Towards an African Qur’anic Hermeneutics,” Journal of Qur’anic Studies 4/1 (Aug 2010), pp. 61-76

Abdul-Rasheed Na’Allah, African Discourse in Islam, Oral Traditions, and Performance (2009)

Lamin Sanneh, Beyond Jihad: The Pacifist Tradition in West African Islam (Oxford University Press, 2016)

Zaid Shakir, Scattered Pictures: Reflections of an American Muslim (2007)

Dorrit van Dalen, There is No Doubt: Muslim Scholarship and Society in the 17th-Century Central Sudanic Africa (2015)


Identity Formation


Cawo M. Abdi, Elusive Jannah: The Somali Diaspora and a Borderless Muslim Identity (2015)


Kristine J. Ajrouch and Abdi M. Kusow, “Racial and Religious Contexts” Situational Identities among Lebanese and Somali Muslim Immigrants”, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30/1 (2007, pp. 72-94


Heather Akou, The Politics of Dress in Somali Culture (2011)

Helene Basu, “Music and the Formation of Sidi Identity in Western India”, History Workshop Journal, 65/1(2008), pp. 161-178


Sylvia Chan-Malik, “‘Common Cause’: On the Black-Immigrant Debate and Constructing the Muslim America”, Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Religion, 2/8 (May 2011), pp. 1-39


Edward E. Curtis IV “African-American Islamization Reconsidered: Black History Narratives and Muslim Identity”, Journal of American Academy of Religion, 73/3 (2005), pp. 659-684

Edward E. Curtis, “Islamism and Its African American Muslim Critics: Black Muslims in the Era of the Arab Cold War,” American Quarterly, 59/3 (Sept. 2007), pp. 683-709

Yunus Dumbe, “The Salafi Praxis of Constructing Religious Identity in Africa: A Comparative Perspective of the Growth of the Movements in Accra and Cape Town”, Islamic Africa, 2/2 (Winter 2011), pp. 87-116


Leena Habiballa, “Seeds of Sudanese Identity: Unsettling the Logic of Racialisation” http://www.qahwaproject.com/archive/2015/11/26/seeds-of-sudanese-identity-unsettling-the-logic-of-racialisation


Jamillah Karim, “Between Immigrant Islam and Black Liberation: Young Muslims Inherit Global Muslim and African American Legacies”, The Muslim World, 95/4 (2005), pp. 497-513


Su’ad Abdul Khabeer, “Africa as Tradition in U.S. African American Muslim Identity”, Journal of Africana Religions, 5/1 (2017), pp. 26-49

Behnaz A. Mirzai, “African Presence in Iran: Identity and Its Reconstruction in the 19th and 20th Centuries”, Revue d’Histoire Outre-Mers, 89/33-37 (2002), pp. 229-246

Kiri Rupiah, “Authentically Black, Authentically Arab-A Roundtable on Afro-Arab Identity”, Afripop! (Feb. 4, 2016) http://afripopmag.com/2016/02/04/authentically-black-authentically-arab-a-roundtable-on-afro-arab-identity/?utm_content=buffer0ed5c&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer 

Ikhlas Saleem, “There’s Nothing Regular About Being Black and Muslim in America”, Buzzfeed (June 25, 2016) https://www.buzzfeed.com/ikhlassaleem/the-hybrid?utm_term=.iaZ50p3G1#.gyyaYXAeN 

Najma Sharif, “Black, Queer, and Muslim: On Faith, Self-Care and Identity”, Nylon (March 14, 2017) http://www.nylon.com/articles/black-queer-muslim-self-care-faith-identity

Richard Brent Turner, “What Shall We Call Him: Islam and African-American Identity”, Journal of Religious Thought, 51/1 (1995), pp. 1-28.

Sharifa M. Zawawi, African Muslim Names: Images and Identities (1998)


Black Muslim Women


Sara Aceves, Ain’t I a Muslim Woman? African American Muslim Women Practicing “Multiple Critique” (2010) http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1037&context=pomona_theses


Ousseina D. Alidou, Engaging Modernity: Muslim Women and the Politics of Agency in Postcolonial Niger (2011)


Ousseina D. Alidou, Muslim Women in Postcolonial Kenya: Leadership, Representation, and Social Change (2013)


Erin Augis, “Religion, religiousness, and Narrative: Decoding Women’s Practices in Senegalese Islamic Reform”, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 51/3 (2012), pp. 429-441


Margari Aziza, “The Politics of Black Hair and Hijab” http://www.altmuslimah.com/2015/12/10365/


Silvia Bruzzi and Meron Zeleke, “Contested Religious Authority: Sufi Women in Ethiopia and Eritrea”, Journal of Religion in Africa, 45/1 (2015), pp. 37-67


Barbara Callaway and Lucy Creevey, The Heritage of Islam: Women, Religion, and Politics in West Africa (1994)


Barbara J. Callaway, Muslim Hausa Women in Nigeria: Tradition and Change (1987)


Francesca Declich, “Transmission of Muslim Practices and Women’s Agency in Ibo Island and Pemba (Mozambique)”, Journal of Eastern African Studies, 7/4 (2013), pp. 588-606


Juliane Hammer, American Muslim Women, Religious Authority, and Activism: More Than a Prayer (2011).


Jamillah Karim, “Voices of faith, faces of beauty: connecting American Muslim women through Azizah” in Muslim Networks from Hajj to Hip Hop, eds. miriam cooke and Bruce Lawrence (2005).


Jamillah Karim, American Muslim Women: Negotiating Race, Class, and Gender within the Ummah (2009)


Debra Majeed, Polygyny: What it Means When African American Muslim Women Share their Husbands (2015)

Adeline Masquelier, Women and Islamic Revival in a West African Town (2009)


Aminah McCloud, “African-American Muslim Women”, in Yvonne Haddad (ed.), The Muslims of America (1991), pp. 177-187


Jan-Therese Mendes, Exploring Blackness from Muslim, Female, Canadian Realities: Founding Selfhood, (Re)Claiming Identity and Negotiating Belongingness within/against a Hostile Nation (2011)


Zakiyyah Muhammad, “Muslim African American Women: The Qur’an, Human Excellence and the Four Rivers,” in Lopez D. Matthews, Jr. and Kenvi C. Phillips (eds.), Liberating Minds, Liberating Society: Black Women in the Development of American Culture and Society, (Create Space Independent Publishing, 2014), p. 143-158.


Angela Odoms-Young, “Factors that Influence Body Image Representations of Black Muslim Women”, Social Science & Medicine, 66/12 (2008), pp. 2573-2584


Elisha P. Renne (editor), Veiling in Africa (2013)


Carolyn Moxley Rouse, Engaged Surrender: African American Women and Islam (2004).


Dorothea Schulz, “Renewal and Enlightenment: Muslim Women’s Biographic Narratives of Personal Reform in Mali”, Journal of Religion in Africa, 41/1 (2011), pp. 93-123


Abdoulaye Sounaye, “‘Go Find the Second Half of Your Faith with these Women!’: Women Fashioning Islam in Contemporary Niger”, The Muslim World, 101/3 (July 2011), pp. 539-554


Daa’iyah Taha, “The Sacred Journey: The Gift of Hajj”, in Gloria Wade-Gayles (ed.), My Soul is a Witness: African-American Women’s Spirituality, (2002), pp. 266-271


Amina Wadud, “Hajar: Of the Desert” http://feminismandreligion.com/2013/10/17/hajar-of-the-desert-by-amina-wadud/


Sexuality and Gender


Zain Abdullah, “Narrating Muslim Masculinities: The Fruit of Islam and the Quest for Black Redemption”, Spectrum: A Journal on Black Men, 1/1 (2012, pp. 141-177


Erin Augis, Aïcha’s Sounith Hair Salon: Friendship, Profit, and Resistance in Dakar”, Islamic Africa, 5/2 (Fall 2014), pp. 199-224


Aaliyah Bilal, “The Million-Man March: A Black Muslim Feminist Response” https://medium.com/ummah-wide/the-million-man-march-a-black-muslim-feminist-response-5a77793684b9#.3dxzupdqu


Britta Frede and Joseph Hill, “Introduction: En-gendering Islamic Authority in West Africa”, Islamic Africa, 5/2 (2014), pp. 131-165


Rudolf Pell Gaudio, Allah Made Us: Sex Outlaws in an Islamic African City (2009)

Sondra Hale, Gender Politics in Sudan:  Islamism, Socialism, and the State (Westview Press, 1997)

Joseph Hill “‘All Women are Guides’: Sufi Leadership and Womanhood among Taalibe Baay in Senegal”, Journal of Religion in Africa, 40/4 (2010), pp. 375-412


Joseph Hill, “Picturing Islamic Authority: Gender Metaphors and Sufi Leadership in Senegal”, Islamic Africa, 5/2 (Fall 2014), pp. 275-315


Susan F. Hirsch, Pronouncing and Preserving: Gender and the Discourses of Disputing in an African Islamic Court (1998)


Alaine S. Hutson, “Women, Men, and Patriarchal Bargaining in an Islamic Sufi Order: The Tijaniyya in Kano, Nigeria, 1937 to the Present”, Gender and Society, 15/5 (2001), pp. 734-753


Afdhere Jama, Being Queer and Somali: LGBT Somalis at Home and Abroad (2015)


Azmat Khan and Amina Waheed, “Meet America’s First Openly Gay Imam” http://america.aljazeera.com/watch/shows/america-tonight/america-tonight-blog/2013/12/20/meet-america-s-firstopenlygayimam.html


Jeffrey B. Leak, “Malcolm X and Black Masculinity in Process”, in Robert. E. Terrill, Cambridge Companion to Malcolm X (2010), pp. 51-62


Ebenezer Obadare, “Sex, Citizenship and the State in Nigeria: Islam, Christianity and Emergent Struggles Over Intimacy”, Review of African Political Economy, 42/143 (2015), pp. 62-76

Pamela Prickett,  “Negotiating Gendered Religious Space: The Particularities of Patriarchy in an African AMerican Mosque”, Gender & Society, 29/1 (2015), pp. 51-72

Kathryn A. Rhine, “She Lives Dangerously: Intimate Ethics, Grammatical Personhood, and HIV/AIDS in Islamic Northern Nigeria”, Africa Today, 61/4 (2015), pp. 84-103


Gwendolyn Zoharah Simmons, “Are We Up to the Challenge? The Need for a Radical Reordering of the Islamic Discourse on Women” in Omid Safi (ed.), Progressive Muslims; On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism (2006)


Erin E. Stiles and Katrina Daly Thompson (eds.), Gendered Lives in the Western Indian Ocean: Islam, Marriage, and Sexuality on the Swahili Coast (2015)


Katrina Daly Thompson, “How to be a Good Muslim Wife: Women’s Performance of Islamic Authority during Swahili Weddings”, Journal of Religion in Africa, 41/4 (2011), pp. 427-448


Richard Brent Turner, “Constructing Masculinity: Interactions between Islam and African-American Youth Since C. Eric Lincoln, The Black Muslims in America”, Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society, 8/4 (2006), pp. 31-44


Amina Wadud-Muhsin, “On Belonging as a Muslim Woman” in Gloria Wade-Gayles (ed.), My Soul is a Witness: African-American Women’s Spirituality (2002) pp. 253-265


Amina Wadud, Qur’an and Woman: Rereading the Sacred Text from a Woman’s Perspective, 2nd ed. (1999)


Constructions of Race and anti-Blackness


Layla Abdullah, “White Racial Rhetoric & Black American Muslims” https://storify.com/deenonthebrain/getting-started 

Imam Luqman A. Ahmad, Double Edged Slavery: How African American Muslims Have Been Colonized (2016)

Sumayya Ahmed, “Islam is a Black American”, ISLAMiCommentary (Dec 11, 2015) http://islamicommentary.org/2015/12/islam-is-a-black-american-by-sumayya-ahmed/


Syed Mustafa Ali, Towards an Islamic Decoloniality–Seminar 2 of 3 https://www.academia.edu/6760988/Towards_an_Islamic_Decoloniality_-_Seminar_2_of_3


“Black, Muslim, American: Interview with Dr. Jamillah Karim”, The Islamic Monthly (Feb. 27 2013) http://theislamicmonthly.com/black-muslim-american-interview-with-dr-jamillah-karim/


John Austin, “How to be Black and Muslim in ‘Post-Racial’ America”, Beacon Broadside (Feb. 2014) http://www.beaconbroadside.com/broadside/2014/02/how-to-be-black-and-muslim-in-post-racial-america.html 

Maria Khwaja Bazi, “Black Muslim Americans: The Minority within a Minority”, Fair Observer (Feb. 22, 2016) http://www.fairobserver.com/region/north_america/black-muslim-americans-the-minority-within-a-minority-34590/ 

“Black, Muslim, American: Interview with Dr. Jamillah Karim”, The Islamic Monthly (Feb. 27 2013) http://theislamicmonthly.com/black-muslim-american-interview-with-dr-jamillah-karim/


#BlackMuslimFuture, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Ul3i-AViSs

Edward W. Blyden, Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race (1994)


Isaac Butler, “Why is Othello Black?” Slate (Nov 11, 2015) http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/theater/2015/11/why_is_othello_black_understanding_why_shakespeare_made_his_hero_a_moor.html


Moderated by Sylvia Chan-Malik, with Evelyn Alsultany, Su’ad Abdul Khabeer, and Maryam Kashani, “A Space for the Spiritual”: A Roundtable on Race, Gender, and Islam in the United States https://www.academia.edu/6485271/_A_Space_for_the_Spiritual_A_Roundtable_on_Race_Gender_and_Islam_in_the_United_States

Ruqayyah Daud, “Black in the Muslim Student Association”, Alt Muslimah (Dec 8, 2016) http://www.altmuslimah.com/2016/12/black-muslim-students-association/?platform=hootsuite 

Aisha Gani, “Here’s What Black Muslims Thought of ‘Muslims Like Us’”, Buzzfeed (Dec 19, 2016) https://www.buzzfeed.com/aishagani/heres-what-black-muslims-thought-of-muslims-like-us?utm_term=.bbjjmDX96#.dsKZ0WaPj 


Bruce Hall, A History of Race in Muslim West Africa, 1600-1960 (2011)

Nadira Hangail, “Hamza Yusuf and the Dangers of Black Pathology”, Struggling Hijabi http://strugglinghijabi.tumblr.com/post/154946891650/hamza-yusuf-and-the-dangers-of-black-pathology 

Isra Amin Ibrahim, “How the Response to Delta Airline’s Islamophobia Normalizes Anti-Black Violence in Muslim Spaces”, Race Baitr (Dec 28, 2016) http://racebaitr.com/2016/12/28/response-delta-airlines-islamophobia-normalizes-anti-black-violence-muslim-spaces/# 

Amina Inloes, “Racial ‘Othering’ in Shi’i Sacred History: Jawn ibn Huwayy the ‘African Slave’, and the Ethnicities of the Twelve Imams”, Journal of Shi’a Islamic Studies, 7/4 (Autumn 2014), pp. 411-439


Jamillah A. Karim, “To Be Black, Female, and Muslim: A Candid Conversation about Race in the American Ummah”, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 26/2 (2006), pp. 225-233


Zeba Khan, “American Muslims have a Race Problem” http://america.aljazeera.com/opinions/2015/6/american-muslims-have-a-race-problem.html


Makkah, “The Very Serious Function of Racism” http://makkahmeetslife.tumblr.com/post/134204964827/the-very-serious-function-of-racism 

Mohamud Awil Mohamed, “Islam and Blackness: A Crossroads”, The Huffington Post (Sept 28, 2016) http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/islam-and-blackness-a-crossroads_us_57eb4a84e4b07f20daa0fe28 

Hakeem Muhammad, “Imam Hamza Yusuf & the Compound Ignorance of White Supremacy”, Patheos (Dec 27, 2016) http://www.patheos.com/blogs/truthtopower/2016/12/imam-hamza-yusuf-compound-ignorance-white-supremacy/

Hakeem Muhammad, “Is Kant better than the Qur’an? A Black Muslim response”, Patheos (April 28, 2016) http://www.patheos.com/blogs/truthtopower/2016/04/no-kant-is-not-better-than-the-quran-a-black-muslim-response/?ref_widget=gr_trending&ref_blog=grails&ref_post=muslim 

Michael Mumisa, “Is Al-Qaeda Racist?” New Statesmen (July 30, 2010) http://www.newstatesman.com/blogs/the-staggers/2010/07/obama-qaeda-black-islamic-book

Hussein Rashid and Precious Rasheeda Muhammad, “American Muslim (Un)Exceptionalism: #BlackLivesMatter and #BringBackOurGirls”, Journal of Africana Religions, 3/4 (2015), pp. 478-495


Dawud Walid, “History Relating to Muslims and ‘Blackness’” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VTX50_Jjez4&feature=youtu.be&a


“What is Muslim Cool-Race Relations-Dr. Su’ad Abdul Khabeer & Moutasem Atiya”, ImanWire Podcast (Dec 26, 2016) https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/imanwire-podcast/id1130812669?mt=2&i=379337096 

Anas White, “A Black Muslim on #MuslimLivesMatter” http://www.altmuslimah.com/2015/02/a-black-muslim-on-muslimlivesmatter/




Jamal Ali, Black and Green: Black Insights for the Green Movement (2009)


Rowaida Abdelaziz, “Protest Cost Him His Career. Still, Mahmoud Abdul-Rauf Urges On The Protesters,” Huffington Post, https://www.huffpost.com/entry/protest-mahmoud-abdul-rauf-nba-flag_n_5eda77a0c5b619004bd7876d

Donna Auston, “Mapping the Intersections of Islamophobia and #BlackLivesMatter” http://sapelosquare.com/2015/05/19/mapping-the-intersections-of-islamophobia-blacklivesmatter-unearthing-black-muslim-life-activism-in-the-policing-crisis/


Donna Auston, “Prayer, Protest, and Police Brutality: Black Muslim Spiritual Resistance in the Ferguson Era”, Transforming Anthropology, 25/1 (April 2017), pp. 11-22 ·

Donna A. Auston, “When Silence Says it All: Reflections on American Muslim Leadership and the Trayvon Martin Tragedy” http://donnaauston.com/when-silence-says-it-all/


Zareena Grewal, “Lights, Camera, Suspension: Freezing the Frame on the Mahmoud Abdul-Rauf-Anthem Controversy”, Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society, 9/2 (2007), pp. 109-122


Joanna Harcourt-Smith, “Ameena Matthews-Full Interview: The Violence Interrupter” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eahej0jA8WY


Faatimah Knight, Black Churches Burning-Address at the Parliament of the World Religions, Emerging Leaders Plenary https://medium.com/ummah-wide/black-churches-burning-address-at-the-parliament-of-the-world-s-religions-emerging-leaders-28d7db4f1d1d#.sn99oxan9


Melani McAlister, “One Black Allah: The Middle East in the Cultural Politics of African American Liberation, 1955-1970,” American Quarterly, 51/3 (Sept. 1999), pp. 622-656

Muna Mire, “Towards a Black Muslim Ontology of Resistance”, The New Inquiry (April 29, 2015) http://thenewinquiry.com/essays/towards-a-black-muslim-ontology-of-resistance/

Tariq Toure, “Not One Muslim Dime–Black Friday without Muslims: An Open Letter from Tariq Toure”, Muslim Matters (Nov 26, 2015) http://muslimmatters.org/2015/11/26/not-one-muslim-dime-black-friday-without-muslims-an-open-letter-from-tariq-toure/



Sadia Abbas, At Freedom’s Limit: Islam and the Postcolonial Predicament (2014)

Sara Abbas, “Why it Matters that Ahmed Mohamed is both Black and Muslim”, Huffington Post (Oct 20 2015)



Edward E. Curtis IV, “The Black Muslim Scare of the Twentieth Century: The History of State Islamophobia and Its Post-9/11 Variations” in Carl W. Ernst (ed.), Islamophobia in America: The Anatomy of Intolerance (2013), pp. 75-106


Hallima Docmanov, “Islamophobia will Never be the New Black, Muslim Girl (Sept 20, 2015) http://muslimgirl.net/14170/islamophobia-will-never-new-black/


“Faith in Times of Fear: How Muslim women are coping with backlash after recent events”, Al Jazeera (Dec 8 2015) http://stream.aljazeera.com/story/201512082123-0025108

Margari Hill, “Islamophobia and Black American Muslims”, Huffington Post (Dec 15, 2015)



Jamillah Karim, “’My Cousin Is a Muslim’: Black Families Against Islamophobia”, Huffington Post (Jan 8 2016) http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jamillah-karim/my-cousin-is-a-muslim_b_8908934.html

Su’ad Abdul Khabeer, “The Peculiar Case of the Black American Islamophobe”, Huffington Post (Aug 8, 2011) http://www.huffingtonpost.com/suad-abdul-khabeer/us-islamophobia-_b_917134.html


Hind Makki, “Unveiling Fear in a Time of Islamophobia”, Patheos (Dec 4, 2015), http://www.patheos.com/blogs/hindtrospectives/2015/12/unveiling-fear-in-a-time-of-islamophobia/?ref_widget=trending&ref_blog=hindtrospectives&ref_post=being-black-and-muslim


Nessa, “The (Anti)Black Ass Roots of America’s Islamophobia”, Medium (Jan 27, 2017) https://medium.com/@BaconTribe/the-anti-black-ass-roots-of-americas-islamophobia-374fa6d0947b 

Sajdah Nubee, “A Black Muslim Voice on Islamophobia”, Huffington Post (Dec 16, 2015) http://www.huffingtonpost.com/sajdah-nubee/a-black-muslim-voice-on-islamophobia_b_8813786.html


Junaid Rana, “The Story of Islamophobia”, Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society, 9/2 (2007), pp. 148-161




Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Peter Knobler, Giant Steps: The Autobiography of Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (1983)

Muhammad Abdul-Rauf, Bilal Ibn Rabah: A Leading Companion of the Prophet Muhammad (1977)

  1. Naseer Ahmad and Bakri Abedi, A Diamond of Africa: The Illustrious Life of African Ahmadi Sheikh Amri Abedi (2012)

Mohammed Akberali, Biography of Imam Muhammad al Jawad: A Short History of Imam Muhammad al Jawad (2014)

Terry Alford, Prince Among Slaves: The Story of an African Prince Sold into Slavery in the American South, 30th Anniversary ed. (2007)

Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Ali: The Greatest My Own Story (2015)

Baqir Shair al-Qarashi, The Life of Imam Muhammad al-Jawad (2001)

Thomas Bluett, Some Memoirs of the Life of Job, the Son of Solomon, the High Priest of Boonda in Africa Who was a Slave About Two Years in Maryland; and Afterwards Being Brought to England was Set Fee and Sent to His Native Land in the Year 1734 (1734) http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/bluett/bluett.html/


Herb Boyd and Ilyasah Al-Shabazz (editors), The Diary of Malcolm X: El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, 1964 (2014)


Jean Boyd, The Caliph’s Sister: Nana Asma’u 1793-1865: Teacher, Poet and Islamic Leader (1990)

Louis Brenner, West African Sufi: The Religious Heritage and Spiritual Search of Cerno Bokar Saalif Taal (1984)

Claude A. Clegg III, An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad (1997)

Rodney P. Collins with A. Peter Bailey, Seventh Child: A Family Memoir of Malcolm X (2002)

Keith Ellison, My Country, ‘Tis of Thee: My Faith, My Family, Our Future (2014)

Adebisi Folorunsho, “The Portrait of Shaykh ‘Adam ‘Abdullah ‘al-’Iluri (1917-1992),” Journal of Oriental and African Studies, 22 (2013), pp. 97-110.

Joshua Hammer, The Bad-Ass Librarians of Timbuktu and Their Race to Save the World’s Most Precious Manuscripts (Simon & Schuster, 2016)

Omar ibn Said (ed. Ala Alryyes), A Muslim American Slave: The Life of Omar ibn Said (2011)


James H. Johnston, From Slave Ship to Harvard: Yarrow Mamout and the History of an African American Family (2012)


Hilal Kara and Abdullah Kara, Bilal al-Habashi: An Exemplar of Patience and Devotion (2017)

Robin Law and Paul E. Lovejoy (editors), The Biography of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua: His Passage from Slavery to Freedom in Africa and America (2006)

Florence H. Leninsohn, Looking for Farrakhan (2009)


Manning Marable, Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention (2011)

Leigh Montville, Sting Like a Bee: Muhammad vs. The United States of America, 1966-1971 (2017)

D.T. Niane, Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali, revised edition (2006)

Bruce Perry, Malcolm: The Life of a Man who Changed Black America (1992)


Abdullah Hakim Quick, In the Heart of a West African Islamic Revival: Shaykh Uthman Dan Fodio (1774-1804) (2007)

Patricia Raybon and Alana Raybon, Undivided: A Muslim Daughter, Her Christian Mother, Their Path to Peace (2015)

Russell Rickford, Betty Shabazz Surviving Malcolm X: A Journey of Strength from Wife to Widow to Heroine (2005)

Ilyasah Shabazz, Growing Up X (2003).


Charles Smith, Twelve Rounds to Glory: The Story of Muhammad Ali  (2007)

William Strickland, Malcolm X: Make it Plain (1994)

Sonsyrea Tate, Little X: Growing Up in the Nation of Islam (2005)


Akbarall Thobhani, Mansa Musa: The Golden King of Ancient Mali (1998)

Leah Vernon, Unashamed: Musings of a Fat, Black Muslim (2019)

Amir Webb, Musa: Mansa of Mali: The Extended Version (2018)

Malcolm X with Alex Haley, The Autobiography of Malcolm X




Hisham Aidi, Rebel Music: Race, Empire and the New Muslim Youth Culture (2014)


Hisham Aidi, “‘Verily, there is only one hip-hop Umma’: Islam, Cultural Protest and Urban Marginality”, Socialism and Democracy, 18/2 (2004), pp. 107-126


  1. Samy Alim, “Reinventing Islam with Unique Modern Tones” Muslim Hip Hop Artists as Verbal Mujahidin”, Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society, 8/4 (2006), pp. 45-58


Larry Blumenfeld, “Exploding Myths in Morocco and Senegal: Sufis Making Music after 9/11”, in Jonathan Ritter and J. Martin Daughtry (eds.), Music in Post-9/11 World (2012), pp. 209-224


Christopher W. Chase, “Prophetics in the Key of Allah: Towards an Understanding of Islam in Jazz”, Jazz Perspectives, 4/2 (2010), pp. 157-181


Jonathan Curiel, “Muslim Roots of the Blues/The Music of Famous American Blues Singers Reaches back through the South to the Culture of West Africa”, SF Gate (Aug. 15 2004) http://www.sfgate.com/opinion/article/Muslim-roots-of-the-blues-The-music-of-famous-2701489.php

Fatima El Shibli, “Islam and the Blues”, Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society, 9/2 (2007), pp. 162-170


Juan M. Floyd-Thomas, “A Jihad of Words” The Revolution of African American Islam and Contemporary Hip-Hop”, in Anthony Pinn (ed.), Noise and Spirit: The Religious and Spiritual Sensibilities of Rap Music (2003), pp. 49-70


Sara Hakeem Grewal, “Intra- and Interlingual Translation in Blackamerican Muslim Hip Hop”, African American Review, 46/1 (Spring 2013), pp. 37-54


Amy Jairazbhoy and Nazir Jairazbhoy, Sidi Sufis: African Indian Mystics of Gujarat http://apsara-media.com/African%20Indian%20Mystics%20of%20Gujarat.html


Deborah Kapchan, Traveling Spirit Masters: Moroccan Gnawa Trance and Music in the Global Marketplace (2007)

Su’ad Abdul Khabeer, Muslim Cool: Race, Religion, and Hip Hop in the United States (NYU Press, 2016)

Su’ad Abdul Khabeer, “Rep that Islam: The Rhyme and Reason of American Islamic Hip Hop”, The Muslim World 97/1 (2007), pp. 125-141


Annemette Kirkegaard, “Music Transcendence: Sufi Popular Performances in East”, Temenos: Nordic Journal of Comparative Religion, 48/1 (2012), pp. 29-48


Beverly B. Mack, Muslim Women Sing: Hausa Popular Song (2004)


Anaya McMurray, “Hotep and Hip-Hop: Can Black Muslim Women Be Down with Hip-Hop”, Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism 8/1 (2007), pp. 74-92


Felicia Miyakawa. Five Percenter Rap: God Hop’s Music, Message and Black Muslim Mission (2005)


Naeem Mohaiemen, “Fear of a Muslim Planet: Hip-Hop’s Hidden History” http://archive.thedailystar.net/forum/2008/june/fear.htm


Abdoulaye Niang, “‘Preaching Music’ and Islam in Senegal: Can the Secular Mediate the Religious? The Case of Rap and Mbalax Music”, African Communication Research, 2/1 (2009), pp. 61-84


Michael Olútáò Olátúnjí, “Modern Trends in the Islamized Music of the Traditional Yorùbá”, Matatu-Journal for African Culture and Society, 40/1 (2012), pp. 447-455

Ari Poutiainen and Inka Rantakallio, “Discursive Construction of African-American Identities and Spirituality: A Comparison of Muslim Hip Hop and 1960s Jazz Avant-Garde”, Popular Music and Society, 17 (June 2015), pp. 1-16


Ana Sobral, “‘Unlikely MCs’: Hip hop and the Performance of Islamic Feminism”, European Journal of English Studies, 16/3 (2012), pp. 259-271


Journals, Zines, Newsletters, and Magazines


African Times and Orient Review

  • Pan-African and pan-Asian journal founded in 1912


Bilalian News

  • Renamed Muhammad Speaks journal, which was published using this name from 1976 to 1981. Because the content differed in MS and BN, they warrant separate entries.

Azizah Magazinehttp://www.azizahmagazine.com/

  • A magazine for Muslim women by Muslim women


The Final Call

  • The official newspaper of the Nation of Islam under Minister Louis Farrakhan


Muhammad Speaks

  • Journal founded by Honorable Elijah Muhammad in 1960

Muslim Journal: https://muslimjournal.net/

Nazar: https://nazar.substack.com/people/1441083

  • Black Muslims and technology

Somali Semantics: http://somalisemantics.tumblr.com/

  • A zine that explores conversations around identity making and diaspora

Virtue Today Magazine: http://www.virtuetodaymag.com/ 

  • Women’s magazine for Nation of Islam members


Websites and Blogs


The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean World: http://exhibitions.nypl.org/africansindianocean/index2.php

The Black Muslim Times UK:  https://theblackmuslimtimesuk.wordpress.com/ 

Brother Jesse Blog: http://brotherjesseblog.com/ 

Donna A. Auston:  http://donnaauston.com/ 

The Drinking Gourd: https://medium.com/the-drinking-gourd/about

Fit Muslimah:  http://fitmuslimah.com/ 

Hagar Liveshttp://hagarlives.blogspot.com/ 


Lampost Education Initiative: http://www.lamppostproductions.com/

Margari Aziza:  https://margariaziza.com/ 

Muslim ARC:  http://www.muslimarc.org/

Muslim Girl Journal: https://muslimgirljournal.com/

Muslim Wellness: http://www.muslimwellness.com/


National Black Muslim COVID Coalition: https://www.blackmuslimcoalition.com/

NbA Muslims:  http://www.patheos.com/blogs/nbamuslims/ 

Official Website of Dawud Walidhttp://www.dawudwalid.com/ 

Precious Speakshttp://preciousspeaks.com/ 

Race + Gender + Faith: http://race-gender-faith.blogspot.com/ 

Sapelo Square, An Online Resource for African American Islam: http://sapelosquare.com/


Struggling Hijabihttp://strugglinghijabi.tumblr.com/ 

Truth to Power: A Center of Black Muslim Thought, History and Philosophy: http://www.patheos.com/blogs/truthtopower 

We Been Here: https://webeenhere.blog/

Zaheer Ali: http://www.zaheerali.com/



#BeingBlackAndMuslim (created by @MuslimARC)

#BlackHijabiChallenge (created by @Nerd_Geek_Ninja with assists from @KeiyAlexis and @Margari_Aziza)

#BlackIftar (created by SamiraImam_)

#BlackMuslim2020 (created by @Margari_Aziza)

#BlackMuslimFuture (created by @MuslimARC)

#BlackMuslimFamily (created by @KameelahRashad)

#BlackMuslimGirlFly (created by @niamalikadixon)

#BlackMuslimHistory (created by Sapelo Square)

#BlackMuslimRamadan (created by @TinyMuslimah)

#BlackMuslimReads (@LaylaAPoulos)

#BlackMuslimSpotlight (created by @krennylavitz)

#BlackMuslimWisdom (created by @MWFNational)

 #BlackOutEid (created by @krennylavitz)

#BlackOutJummah (created by @sorryuhh)

#BombBlackHijabis (created by @safuratumbles and @afrohijab)

#JusticeOrElse (created by NOI)

#MuslimCool (created by @DrSuad)

#OurThreeBrothers (created by @TariqToure)

#XSpeaks (created by Nsenga Knight)

#ZoulSoul (created by @HindMakki)


Archival and Digital Humanities Projects

After Malcolm Digital Archive, https://aftermalcolm.com/about-the-project/

Indianapolis Imam Warith Deen Muhammad Community, https://ulib.iupui.edu/collections/IWDC 


Poetry and Spoken Word


Brother Dash, Spoken Soul (2009)


Emi Mahmoud, “The Colors We Ascribe” (2015) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uaWw6-3GrcU


Imam W. Deen Mohammed, It’s Time We Sing “A New Song”, 75 Select Poems (2013)

Tariq Touré, 2 Parts Oxygen: How I Learned to Breathe (2019)

Tariq Touré, Black Seeds: The Poetry and Reflections of Tariq Toure (2016)




Saleemah Abdul-Ghafur (editor), Living Islam Out Loud (2005)

Layla Abdullah-Poulos, Fatimah Abdulmalik, and Umm Juwayriyah (editors), NbA Muslims-Black Muslim Reads (2020)


Performance Art


Su’ad Abdul Khabeer, Sampled: Beats of Muslim Life, http://www.suadabdulkhabeer.com/sampled-beats-of-muslim-life

Nsenga Knight, X Speakshttp://nsengaknight.com/xspeaks/ 




Beeta Baghoolizadeh, “Picturing the Other: Race and Afro-Iranians in Documentary Photography”   http://ajammc.com/2015/07/20/picturing-them-vs-us-race-and-afro-iranians-in-documentary-photography/

Andrew Courtney, Guardians of the Mosque: African Palestinians of Jerusalem


Bobby Rogers, “#BeingBlackandMuslim”, http://bobbyrogers.co/#/beingblackandmuslim/ 

Amaal Said:  http://www.amaalsaid.com/ and https://www.instagram.com/amaalsaid/ 


Radio Shows and Podcasts

The Black Muslim Girl Podcasat:  https://open.spotify.com/show/3xCkhzpDL6WbccLDvxKF4G?context=spotify%3Ashow%3A3xCkhzpDL6WbccLDvxKF4G&si=Szh3UZxFSZiqTbF3aF15Jw 

The Dope Muslim WOman Podcast: https://anchor.fm/sabria-mills

The Hanif J. Williams Show: http://www.blogtalkradio.com/hanifjwilliams

HeadRAPS:  https://soundcloud.com/headraps

Identity Politics:  https://soundcloud.com/identity-politics

Mornings with Mubarakah Radio:  http://morningswithmubarakah.com/

The Teachings 2.0: https://anchor.fm/theteachingspodcast

The Young and Muslim Podcast: https://www.buzzsprout.com/1099370


Movies, Documentaries, and Television Shows


Afro-Iranian Lives (2011), http://www.afroiranianlives.com/trailer.htm

Adama (2011) http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1819449/ 

  • The documentary chronicles Adama Bah’s experience with Islamophobia when federal agents raided her home in 2005

Al Nisa: Black Muslim Women in Atlanta’s Gay Mecca (2013) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9_rGU_vCi1s

  • “The story of how filmmaker Red Summer brought five women together who sought to establish a community, where there was none, for Black Muslim Lesbians in Atlanta.”

Ali (2001) http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0248667/

  • Biography of Muhammad Ali


Ask A Muslim (2012) https://www.youtube.com/user/AskAMuslimSeries/about

  • Documentary webs series that showcases Black Islam in the US


Bilal: A New Brand of Hero (2018) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wp_7Gdf2blE

  • Animated film inspired by the story of Bilal ibn Rabah, one of the Prophet Muhammad’s closest companions


Bilal’s Stand (2010) https://vimeo.com/2861624

  • A high schooler has to determine if he’ll continue with the family business or follow his own dreams to attend college


Black and Muslim in Britain (2016-)


  • Highlights the histories, cultures, and challenges of Black Muslims in UK

The Book of Negroes (2015) http://www.bet.com/shows/the-book-of-negroes.html

  • Focuses on an enslaved African woman and her fight to return home

Chrysalis (2011) https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLNEXDCzfl4qD81H543iukTcuMBXVy_7MV

  • Story of Jamal, a Muslim man in Baltimore, who balances his life as a young father and drug dealer


Death of a Prophet (1981) http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0179757/

  • Focuses on the final year of Malcolm X’s life


Hip Hop Hijabis (2015) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1kSh6bobLTU&noredirect=1

  • Documentary on British rap duo


The Greatest (1977) http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0076111/

  • Biography of Muhammad Ali, starring Muhammad Ali

Jinn (2018) https://www.jinnfilm.com/

  • “A shape-shifting, pepperoni-loving black teenage Instagram celebrity converts to Islam.  Here’s what happens.”


Journey to Timbuktu (2013) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qdxJ0tqF09g

The King of South Shields (2008) http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1357160/plotsummary?ref_=tt_ov_pl

  • Experimental documentary focusing on the day that Muhammad Ali visited a British Yemeni Community in 1977


Malcolm X (1992)

  • Spike Lee Oscar nominated movie

Mooz-Lum (2010) http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1450328/?ref_=rvi_tt

  • “Amid a strict Muslim rearing and a social life he’s never had, Tariq enters college confused. New peers, family and mentors help him find his place, but the 9-11 attacks force him to face his past and make the biggest decisions of his life.”


Muslimah’s Guide to Marriage (2018) https://www.paff.org/films/#!/film/muslimahs_guide_to_marriage 

  • A 20-something Black Muslim woman tries to rebuild her broken marriage before her iddah ends.

Naz and Maalik (2016) http://www.nazandmaalik.com/#!about/cdyi

  • Two closeted Black Muslim teens deal with FBI surveillance


Prince Among Slaves (2014)

  • Documentary on Abdul Rahman Sori narrated by Yasiin Bey


Prison Blues (2015) http://taleefcollective.org/prisonblues/

  • Documentary about the prison industrial complex through a Muslim lens

Roots (1977) http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0075572/

  • The story of Alex Haley’s family, starting with his African Muslim Ancestor, Kunta Kinte

Roots (2016) http://www.imdb.com/title/tt3315386/ 

  • Remake of the 1977 movie


Sleeper Cell (2005-2006)

  • A Muslim FBI agent goes undercover to infiltrate a sleeper cell in the U.S.


The Siddi, An African Community in India


Somalinimo (2020)


  • Documentary on Somali Muslim students at Cambridge University

The Trials of Muhammad Ali (2014) http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/films/trials-of-muhammad-ali/

  • The story of Muhammad Ali inside and outside of the ring

Timbuktu (2014) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cs2dYAlbINY

  • The story of a family’s life during the occupation of Timbuktu, Mali by the Ansar Dine


Traitor (2008) http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0988047/

  • “When straight arrow FBI agent Roy Clayton heads up the investigation into a dangerous international conspiracy, all clues seem to lead back to former U.S. Special Operations officer, Samir Horn.”

What’s My Name: Muhammad Ali (2019)

  • Two-part HBO documentary on Muhammad Ali’s boxing career and activism

Witnessed: The Assassination of Malcolm X (2015) https://www.cnn.com/specials/malcolm-x

  • CNN special report on Malcolm X’s death